Oregon Magazine

Below, you will find some basic links and dated articles.  Until further notice, this interior page will become an archive instead of a source of current news. 

Hubble sees glowing ring of fire

To celebrate its birthday the Hubble Space Telescope has observed a ring of brilliant stars in a galaxy, far, far away.

Headline links to article.


If you mosey around the West, and appreciate really good lodging at a really good price, you've found your homes away from home. 

    Shilo Inns home page

Q&A: Testing Einstein's theories

Professor Francis Everitt is professor of physics at Stanford University in California, US.  As principal scientific  investigator on the Gravity Probe B, he has overseen Nasa's mission to test key elements of Albert Einstein's theory of relativity.  He told us about his goals for the project.

It's nearly 100 years since Einstein developed his first theory of relativity, surely these things are now established and confirmed?

Headline links to article.

Mars rocks once 'water drenched'

Nasa says its Mars rover Opportunity has shown unequivocally that the Red Planet had the right conditions  to support life some time in its history. The rover has revealed the rocks at its landing site were once in contact  with substantial amounts of liquid water. 


The rover's instruments also detected high levels of sulphate salts which on Earth would normally form in water or, after formation, be highly altered by long exposures to water. 


Rock return 

The scientists still have to show the rocks were originally laid down by minerals precipitating out of solution at the bottom of a salty lake or sea - that they were formed like the water-derived sedimentary rocks found on Earth. 


"The best way to get at the age is going to be to bring some of this stuff back," said Professor Squyres.  And Nasa officials believe a sample return mission should now be a  priority. 


He said a future mission could involve a rover that scoured the surface for interesting rocks which it then took back to a mothership for despatch to Earth. 

OMED: Now, a completely unconnected article whose subject made the evening news.  It seems to us that what they're doing below could be useful for what they want to do, above.

Robots rev up for Grand Challenge contest

Computer-controlled vehicles will race to the death.

OMED: And, below, if the link lasts, a local race report.  The news is that the race is already over.  Nobody won.  So, it's back to the drawing boards for the next try.

Saturday, March 6, 2004
Teams prepare for desert robot race

By JOHN GALAYDA/Staff Writer

Twenty-five teams of scientists and engineers are busy this week gearing up for an autonomous robotic race that could win them a $1 million prize.

The "Grand Challenge," which is scheduled to begin March 13, will start at Slash X Cafe, 28040 Barstow Road, and will end just over the Nevada border at Buffalo Bill's Resort in Primm.

The team that completes the race route, which will not be announced until two hours prior to the start of the race, will win the cash prize. 

The race will have a 10-hour time limit.

Project manager Col. Jose Negron said the ultimate goal of the competition, which is sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency of the U.S. Department of Defense, is to take the technology used in the race and apply it to the modern-day battlefield.

He said the Department of Defense hopes that advances in technology displayed during the challenge will allow robotic ground vehicles to transport supplies and ammunition to troops in the field, so soldiers would not have to make the dangerous trips.

Headline links to article.

'New planet' forces rethink 

International astronomers are to rethink the system for classifying planets following the discovery of 1,700km-wide Sedna. 

So how do new-found planets get their names? 

Headlines links to article.

Earth almost put on impact alert

Astronomers have revealed how they came within minutes of alerting the world to a potential asteroid strike last month.   Some scientists believed on 13  January that a 30m object, later designated 2004 AS1, had a one-in-four chance of hitting the planet within 36 hours. 

Headline links to article.

Rosetta probe heads for comet   After a successful launch, Europe's Rosetta spacecraft heads into space on a daring journey to chase and land on a comet. 

Headline links to article.

Nasa to rethink Hubble decision

The head of the US space  agency reconsiders the decision to abandon the Hubble telescope.

Headline links to article.

Scientists freeze light
Light beams are brought to a standstill in the laboratory by  scientists at Harvard University in the US.

Galactic impact makes black holes

Astronomers have seen a trail of black holes scattered across space formed by a titanic collision between galaxies.  They were detected in the NGC  4261elliptical galaxy observed by the orbiting Chandra X-ray telescope.

The holes are all that remains of streams of stars thrown out into space after two spiral galaxies crashed into each other a few billion years ago.

Headline links to article.

Europe puts France up for reactor   The European Union has chosen France as its preferred location for a nuclear reactor  that scientists hope will revolutionise world power  production  It will cost billions to build the fusion machine which releases energy in a similar way to the Sun's furnaces. 

Scientists say the new reactor will be the first to give out a lot more power than it consumes on initial ignition. 

Headline links to article

Historic math problem 'cracked'   A 22-year-old student at Stockholm University, Elin Oxenhielm, may have solved  part of one of mathematics' greatest unsolved problems.  Called Hilbert's problem 16, it has confounded workers for over a century. 

Headline links to article

Hopes raised for Iraqi research 
Iraqi scientists meet to establish an academy of science in the war-ravaged country.

Venus has 'heavy metal mountains'   The highlands of Venus are covered by a heavy metal "frost", say planetary scientists  from Washington University.  Because it is hot enough to melt  lead at the surface, metals vaporise and condense at cooler,  higher elevations.   This may explain why radar observations made by orbiting  spacecraft show that the highlands are highly reflective. 

Detailed calculations, to be published in the journal Icarus,  suggest that lead and bismuth are to blame for giving Venus its bright, metallic skin.

Headline links to article

Found: The best place for alien life

Aliens watch out - a US astrobiologist has homed in on your star.

It is the 37th brightest star in the constellation of Gemini to be precise, 42 light-years away from Earth and rather like our own Sun. 

Previous piece on this subject:
Call to extend alien life search

Jupiter or Mars-like planets beyond our Solar System may beserious contenders for harbouring life, says a British astrophysicist.

According to Professor Tim Naylor, of Exeter University, planets that do not resemble home should not be ruled out in the search for primitive lifeforms.

He is calling on biologists to draw up new parameters for extra-terrestrial life using their knowledge of the toughest organisms on Earth.

Life clues on Red Planet

Headline links to article

Monkey brains control robot arms

Rhesus monkeys have been taught to control a robot arm using brain signals alone. 

Researchers at Duke University Medical Center in North Carolina said the animals appeared to operate the robot arm as if it were their own limb.  They believe the finding could  eventually lead to the development of highly sophisticated false limbs for people who are paralysed. 

Headline links to article

Chinese astronaut enters orbit

Nasa looks to resume flights   The US space agency publishes a plan of action which may lead to the space shuttle flying early next year.

Headline links to article

Nasa chief vows to make changes

The head of Nasa has said the report into the fatal break-up of the Columbia space shuttle was a "seminal moment" for the space agency and its recommendations would be fully implemented. 

Headline links to article

BBC 'proves' Nessie does not exist

The most extensive sonar survey of Loch Ness ever undertaken shows no sign of the legendary monster.

Headline links to article.

Eyeing a post-Hubble universe    After a complicated birth, the Hubble Space Telescope became a vital tool for astronomers, but scientists must now plan its demise. 

Headline links to article

How does Dyson make water go uphill?

James Dyson's uphill water feature has been the striking image of this year's Chelsea Flower Show. But how did he do it?  It certainly beats your common garden water feature.

OMED: Water appears to onlookers to go from bottom of ramps to top, then over falls to bottom of next ramp.

Headline links to article.

Ghosts 'all in the mind'

 Ghosts are the mind's way of interpreting how the body reacts to certain surroundings, say UK psychologists.  A chill in the air, low-light conditions and even magnetic fields may trigger feelings that "a presence" is in a room - but that is all they are, feelings. 

Headline links to article.

Physicists find 'rebel' particle 

A new sub-atomic particle is identified. It is made of quarks, called Ds (2317) and will aid the understanding of the building blocks of matter

The rise of the keyring drive

The floppy disk is dead. Long live the pocket drive, a tiny  piece of kit that is a revolution. There's a lot of guff about the unstoppable march of technology - not least from the people who want us to buy it. 

But sometimes a gadget comes along that genuinely changes the way you think about what you can do. The sudden appearance of tiny keyring drives may turn out to be one such development. 

Fuel-cell car hopes played down   A 20-year plan to make hydrogen fuel cells a green alternative to conventional car engines is likely to fail, says a report.

The research, from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), US, says that diesel and petrol hybrid vehicles will still be the best option at this point, despite "aggressive research" on hydrogen fuel.

Alien hunters take a closer look   SETI@home team to follow up most promising leads.

Ankle-deep on Mars

If the ice hidden just below the Martian surface were to melt, it could create a planet-wide sea 13 cm deep, scientists say.

Blacker is the new black
UK scientists produce one of the darkest and least reflective surfaces on Earth, for use in telescopes.

Large world found beyond Pluto   A new planet-like object has been found circling the Sun more than one and a half billion kilometres beyond Pluto.

OMED: Astronomers named it after a god from Hollywood.  (Headline links to article.)

Wandering star destined for dwarfdom?   Astronomers catch young star firing from cosmic slingshot.

Earth's weight watched monthly   Picture of gravity will reveal where the water goes.

India and China face off in space   China's latest successful mission means it will put a man in space soon, and India says it wants to put a man on the Moon. Our science editor assesses the start of a new space race.

Physicist proposes deeper layer of reality   New theory takes the chance out of quantum mechanics.

29 hours is a year on OGLE-TR-56b   Most distant planet orbiting another star spotted in passing.

Black Crunch jams Universal cycle
Space might end up dark, thick and boring.

Nanotech builds cells
Artificial membrane printed onto silicon chips.

Universe's first winter was snowy  Hydrogen flakes dusted cosmos before there were stars or planets.

New moons for Neptune
Three new moons have been found circling Neptune, the first to be discovered since1989.

Cosmic message in a bottle
An inscription of Genesis in 1,000 languages is being taken into space on the European Space  Agency's Rosetta mission.

The legacy of Apollo
Thirty years ago, we said goodbye to the Moon. BBC science editor explains what the moon landings meant and why we must go back.

Headline links to article

Sea creature offers clearer vision  The brittlestar, a tiny marine creature with remarkable vision, could hold the key for better cameras.
Headline links to article.

You've heard of replicars?  Here's a replibird.

They're building WWII German fighter jets in the Pacific NW

"Fascinating," as good old Spock used to say.  Last month, we ran an item about an Oregon hobbyist who built this.

Howard Hughes H-1 Racer Replica

As a result, readers tipped us to the PacNW bunch that is copying the world's first operational war jet, the ME262.
Stormbirds is the name of the main page.  You can see the specific project page by clicking on the top photo.

Crystals form in a flash

Polarised light could pack drug molecules to order. 

US scientists have used light to direct the way molecules pack together. The trick could help pharmaceutical companies control how drugs crystallize.

Headline links to article.

Medical insight   Handheld device gives doctors X-ray vision

Headline links to story 

New spin on transistors   Electron spin controls transistor made from artificial atom.

Headline links to story 

How random is pi?  A US mathematician believes he has made a big step in number theory towards proving the randomness of the constant pi.

Headline links to story

 Recent SciTech Articles
   (Some of these links will be out of date)

Hackers could face life in jail   Malicious computer hackers could soon face life in prison for some computer crimes following new measures passed by US lawmakers.

How to build the  perfect paper plane   A schoolboy from Northern Ireland has set the UK record for flying a paper plane.  Roy Blair from Castle High School flew his plane 30.75 metres.

Headline links to story

Pilotless research aircraft: Flying free
Laser propels plane
Brits Power Rocket W/Laughing Gas
IBM's hot tip for data storage
Television T-Shirts   .
'Solar cloth' offers moveable power
Top 10 e-mail scams exposed
Online Voting Fraud a Potential
Email Virus Loads if You Look
Money-men see space for profit
Fixing the virus WORM_KLEZ.G

New rocket fuel?  Solid nitrogen could pack double the punch of existing space propellants.

Air museum to be built in Pendleton  Army facility will be housed next to Pendleton Airport  OMED: it is said that one of these actual Doolittle Raid B-25's will be on display in the new museum

Wind project turbines sail up Columbia
Physics bans cloning
US looks to create robo-soldier
Distant spaceprobe in repair drama
Virtual-reality mummy
Nuclear flash in a pan
Centuries-old clock puzzle
Neanderthals 'used glue to make tools'
Prêt-à-porter computers
Spider scientists spin tough yarn
Peering into the future
Women sniff out ideal mates

Oregon Magazine specials:
Relativity for Dummies
Rabbit Ears Return
Let there be light
Fundamental theory under question
In the Beginning:Genesis and Science
Lorenz ciphers and the Colossus
The Dirty Little Search Engine Secret
Oregon Energy Crises
Diesel-powered Fuel Cell

            Click here
  Mice created without fathers

Scientists have created two female mice without fertilising the eggs they grew from, the  journal Nature says.   The eggs had two sets of chromosomes from two female mice,  rather than one from the mother and one from the father as in a fertilised embryo.  The phenomenon, called parthenogenesis, never occurs naturally in mammals.

Headline links to article.

Mar 27, 9:21 PM (ET)
NASA Jet Might Have Hit Record 5,000 Mph

 LOS ANGELES (AP) - Three years after its first test flight ended in an  explosion, NASA on Saturday successfully launched an experimental jet that the agency believes reached a record-setting speed of about 5,000 mph.

 The unpiloted X-43A made an 11-second powered flight, then went through
 some twists and turns during a six-minute glide before plunging into the
 Pacific Ocean about 400 miles off the California coast.

 "It was fun all the way to Mach 7," said Joel Sitz, project manager at NASA's
 Dryden Flight Research Center.

Headline links to article

Science closes in on perfect lens

New designer materials could eventually lead to "perfect lenses" for optical devices, able to focus on features smaller than the wavelength of light.  These "metamaterials" are composites that can tap into a range of magnetism scientists cannot  harness using known naturally occurring materials. 


The composites are also likely to see applications in enhancing the storage capacity of CDs and DVDs and in increasing the number of circuits that can fit on computer chips

Headline links to article.

Quantum codes debut in real world 

Quantum cryptography has emerged from the laboratory and into a commercially viable product.

Headline links to article

Sucking energy out of the drain

Microbes in wastewater make a handy household battery.

Earlier related article:
Scientists develop 'bacterial battery'

 Cheap, portable batteries based on sugar-eating bacteria could be a possibility, say scientists.  A novel microbe, found in marine sediments, is able to convert sugar into electricity with a higher efficiency than any previously known organism.   Because sugar is abundant in the environment, a battery using the new microbes could provide economical electricity in remote places.

Headline links to article

Study Gives Lowdown On High-temperature Superconductivity

  A new study by theoretical physicists at the University of Toronto and the University of California at Los Angeles (ULCA) could bring scientists one step closer to the dream of a superconductor that functions at room temperature, rather than the frigid temperatures more commonly found in deep space.

(Application possibilities discussed below this item on the Business Page.)

Headline links to article

Shortest time interval measured

Scientists claim they have measured the shortest interval of time ever.   Researchers used short pulses of laser light to produce images of electrons leaving atoms and recorded what happened to within 100 attoseconds. 

To imagine how long this is, if 100 attoseconds is stretched so that it lasts one second, one second would last 300 million years on the same scale. 

Headline links to article.

Next-generation robots take the plunge   When Jacques Piccard and Don Walsh dived into the Marianas Trench in 1960, their visit was brief - just long enough to watch a flatfish skim the seafloor, exclaim their surprise at seeing life thrive at such depths, and make history as the first humans to touch the deepest part of the ocean.

Headline links to article.

Flights of fancy?

As the official 100th anniversary of flight  approaches, there are some  who dispute the Wright brothers' claim to being first off the ground. Who are these "pretenders" to this celebrated  crown?   It was the era of those magnificent men in their flying machines; a time when anything seemed possible as one pioneering invention triumphed over another.

Headline links to article.

Mothers of genius  The women whose inventions changed  the world 

Space station not hit by object
The International Space Station  was not hit by an object in orbit, say Russian space officials.  American Michael Foale and Russian Alexander Kaleri reported hearing a metallic crushing sound, apparently from an unoccupied part of the station.  Russian space officials said there appeared to be no damage to the outside of the craft or change in air pressure inside, and that  the two men were safe. 

They have now confirmed that the noise came from an onboard instrument. 

Nasa tests laser-powered plane 

Nasa flies a tiny model plane powered solely by an invisible laser beam from the ground, in an aviation first. 

Physicists smash internet speed record   GENEVA - Researchers have more than doubled the world speed record for internet data transfer.  Scientists at the CERN particle physics laboratory in Switzerland sent the equivalent of a full-length DVD movie in about seven seconds. 

OMED: This is a new newslink source for us.  We don't know about its durability.  Just in case it disappears, the story was about a transatlantic fiber optic data transfer experiment between the super-collider installation at CERN (in Switzerland) and America.  The scientists need to achieve this level of speed because they are working on developing theories about the Big Bang, and the computer models demand computer speed and capacity that is, appropriately enough, simply astronomical.

Headline links to article

Cosmos is 'shaped like a football'   Satellite observations suggest that the Universe is a dodecahedron, that is, like a  football. 

Nobel honours super-science
Three men will share the 2003 Nobel Prize for Physics for their pioneering contributions to the scientific theories that explain superconductors and superfluids. 

Superconductors are materials which, at extremely low temperatures, pass electricity without resistance.  Superfluids also operate at very low temperatures - just above absolute zero - and display no viscosity; if spun they turn without stopping. 

Headline links to article

Doomsday postponed

Astronomers have issued the 'all-clear' about asteroid 2003  QQ47, suspected by some to be on a possible collision course  with the Earth in just 11 years.  If it were to have hit, the 1.2 kilometre-wide (0.75 mile) rock would have caused widespread  damage and global climate change.  But new data indicates the Earth will be safe on 21 March 2014.

In fact it always was.

Headline links to article

Liquids fold according to density-viscosity ratio  New theory sheds light on plate tectonics and pancake batter.

Headline links to article

Black hole makes deepest-ever note  Gas-gobbling galaxy spotted noisily blowing bubbles to keep warm.

Headline links to article

Exploding star hunters make history   Two British amateur astronomers find more than 100 exploding stars - a success rate that beats all other individuals.

Headline links to article

Mice sign on the dotted line   Scientists have found a way for people to sign their name online using a mouse instead of a pen.

Headline links to article

Cracking idea gets to the core

We have sent probes to Mars, the outer planets and even beyond the farthest reaches of the Solar System - but never to the centre of our own world. Now a planetary scientist has a radical plan to redress the balance.   Outer space is trillions upon trillions of times bigger than the Earth's interior, and yet we know more about what's out there than we do about what's under our feet, says David Stevenson of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. 

Headline links to article.

Rat-brained robot does distant art
Rat neurons in one lab drive a robot arm over the internet to make pictures 19,000 kilometres away in another lab.

Headline links to article.

Spot-on navigation comes a step closer

Highly-accurate and reliable satellite navigation in Europe is coming a step closer with the inauguration of the first main control centre of a new continent-wide system.  The Egnos (European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service) facility is being inaugurated in Langen, Germany, on Friday. 

The millimetre men: GPS Then and Now

 When global positioning systems (GPS) were invented, they were seen primarily as tools for the military and navigators.  However, GPS is now being used in ways its creators may never have imagined, such as predicting storms, measuring sea levels and monitoring continental drift. 

Headline links to article.

Quantum leap for secret codes

Within three years, companies could be using quantum cryptography to protect sensitive messages.  British researchers say they are close to producing an off-the-shelf system that exploits quantum physics to create a secure communications channel.    The system encodes bits of  information on individual particles of light. 

Headline links to article.

Virtual Observatory Prototype Produces Surprise Discovery; Early Demo Project Identifies New Brown Dwarf

A new approach to finding undiscovered objects buried in immense astronomical databases has produced an early and unexpected payoff: a new instance of a hard-to-find type of star known as a brown dwarf.

Scientists working to create the National Virtual Observatory (NVO), an online portal for astronomical research unifying dozens of large astronomical databases, confirmed discovery of the new brown dwarf recently. The star emerged from a computerized search of information on millions of astronomical objects in two separate astronomical databases. Thanks to an NVO prototype, that search, formerly an endeavor requiring weeks or months of human attention, took approximately two minutes.

Headline links to article.

New Molecular Self-Assembly Technique May Mimic How Cells Assemble Themselves

Researchers from the University of Pennsylvania and the University of Sheffield report in the Feb. 21 issue of Science that they have created tree-like molecules that assemble themselves into precisely structured building blocks of a quarter-million atoms. Such building blocks may be precursors to designing nanostructures for molecular electronics or photonics materials, which “steer” light  in the same way computer chips stee electrons.

Headline links to article.

Hubble sees evaporating world
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has observed a planet being destroyed because it orbits too close to its parent star.  The intense radiation and gravity of the star combine to heat and disperse the outer atmosphere of the Jupiter-sized world.

(OMED: Includes neat illustration of dissolving world.)

Extra-Solar Planetary Encyclopedia

Headline links to article.

Universe to expand for ever
Data released by Nasa shows that the Universe will expand for ever, at an ever- increasing rate.

Headline links to article.

Speed of gravity and light equal     Einstein's theory of general relativity passes quasar test.

Gravity experiment sparks spat
Astrophysicists quarrel over quasar test of general relativity.

Headline links to article.

Traffic Jam on Mars?

Two new rovers are hot rods compared to the original model.

Spacecraft transforms Mars knowledge   A new view of the geology of the Red Planet is emerging from data gathered by the Mars Odyssey (MO) spacecraft which has been observing the Red Planet for a year.

The probe is providing a new understanding about the composition of Mars' surface  rocks, geological history, radiation levels and potential landing sites for rovers.

Giant Martian lake traced
Microbes 'could survive on Mars'
Ice reservoirs found on Mars

Nasa names new space telescope
Space lab plans lift off

Building the first space telescope

Spiral galaxy NGC 4414: Testament to Hubble's vision   Despite the public's memory of its faulty mirror, it is clear that the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has had a profound impact on astronomy. Our progress in understanding the Universe has been driven by technology. Hubble, with its powerful vision, has shown us stunning new sights and brought us closer to the big questions of existence.

Ten years of Hubble science

The Eagle Nebula.

It was a promise fulfilled. After its spectacular repair in 1993, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) had a clear and unhindered view of the cosmos and it was not long before its images were astounding astronomers.  Whether it is the dust storms on Mars, the birth of stars, galaxies, black holes or the edge of the Universe, Hubble will have a remarkable picture of it.

Headline links to article.

  Physics Dept.

Antimatter mystery deepens

Particle physicists say their latest experiments show something unknown helped one form of matter to emerge from the Big Bang.

Antimatter is mass-produced
European scientists produce significant amounts of antimatter, which should now allow them to test basic theories in physics.

Test for Einstein's gravity speed theory
Boeing tries to defy gravity   Researchers at aircraft maker Boeing try to replicate the findings of a Russian scientist, who claims to have shielded objects from gravity. (OMED: This is called a "spindizzy" and was suggested decades ago in a book made from a series of short stories.  The title was Cities in Flight, and the author was James Blish.)

Quantum Mirrors
Big bangs spark row

Headline links to story

  Objects de space

Missing link' black holes found
Big black holes in galaxies are made by combining smaller black holes according to new observations.

Success for starhunters
A planet circling another star is found using a new technique that will aid the search for undiscovered worlds. (Photo-link)

Another Saturn-like planet found   Astronomers hunting planets outside our Solar System detect their fifth gas giant with a mass slightly less than Saturn.

Sol-type system (Hooray!!)
Astronomers hail planetary discovery   Scientists searching for planets that might sustain life have found the first solar system to resemble our own. It reminds them of home, say the researchers. (OMED: This story has a typo.  The system is either at 55 Cancri or 53 Cancri.)

Deep secrets of star birth revealed  Farthest view ever may alter major theories

'Oldest' star found in galaxy
Galaxy 'may hold Earth-like planets'
Universe shows its dark side
Digital data puts Mars on map
Astronomers detect  'cosmic web'

Computing power aids alien hunters  The chances of finding intelligent life in the Universe are increasing due to the rapid advances in computer technology, say alien hunters.

Odds on aliens   One in three planets like Earth probably harbour life.

Headline links to story

  Repetitive Functions

What, exactly, is a "solar powered" car?   U.K. Solar Car | American Solar Challenge
Home Power Magazine
Oregon Scanner Frequency Guide
Nature Magazine (free page)
Conversion Tables
(weights, distance, temperature)

Video in Space
ISS: Ham Radio Now Online
With full-time occupants onboard the International Space Station, amateur radio enthusiasts will have the opportunity to communicate with the Expedition One crew and future crews.

Frequencies   (Initial operations only took place on the 2m band.  Use NASA HAM, or the ARRL  for latest freqs.)

Worldwide downlink for voice and packet  145.80
Worldwidepacket uplink     145.99
Region 1 voice uplink     145.20
Region 2 and 3 voice uplink   144.49

Call Signs for the ISS  ( Use NASA HAM, or the ARRL  for latest on national signs)
U.S.A. callsign  NA1SS
Packet station mailbox callsign  RZ3DZR-1
Packet station keyboard callsign  RZ3DZR

  Treatment Center for
     alcohol  and other drug

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       National 1-800-543-9905

Before you buy or refinance.  It's easy, it's quick and it's private.
Just click on the graphic above.

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